Extension Challenges and Requirements of Integrated Rice-Fish Farming in Gilan Province, Iran




Integrated Rice-Fish Farming requires very little input and provides off season employment to
farm labors. It has been observed that combination of rice and fish farming is mutually
beneficial. Although, in implementation, it can be faced with several challenges and it demands
some requirements. So, this study was conducted to identify challenges and requirements of
Integrated Rice-Fish Farming in Gilan. The research population included all the experts in
Gilan province (N=272). They include experts who are familiar with integrated Rice-Fish
Farming. The initial and follow-up mailing generated 272 useable responses from experts
resulting in a response rate of 100%. Using factor analysis, the challenges and requirements
have been classified into four factors (Cultural-social, Human, Infrastructure, and Legal) and
six factors (Educational methods, Cultural, Facilitating role, participation, Human resource
development, and Economic) respectively. Among the variables which build the Cultural-social
challenges, operator demographic challenges and farmers’ low educational level provides more
impact compared to others, while holding field days and establishing demonstration plots
provides more impact on the Educational Methods requirements, among other variables.